Web of Science (Emerging Sources Citation Index)

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Science, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran

2 Nanotechnology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Medicinal Plant Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

5 Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran


The fruit of Cordia myxa (C. myxa) is widely used for the treatment of respiratory and urinary infections, and as a diuretic, astringent, demulcent and expectorant agent. Other pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic, antitumor and antioxidants activity have also been reported for C. myxa by other studies. This study aimed to compare different extraction methods and offer a way to produce an easy-to-use formulation. In this study, extracts from the fresh and dried fruits of C. myxa were obtained using four extraction methods including soxhlet, maceration, percolation and digestion. Extraction from the dried fruits showed better results compared with that of the fresh fruits. Also, the soxhlet method of extraction using dry powdered fruits was the most efficient for extraction of active components of C. myxa fruits. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the aqueous extract of fruits to be full of active ingredients such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, Steroids, carbohydrates, and saponins. Finally, an oral syrup formulation from C. myxa fruits extract was prepared for the first time and its physicochemical properties such as light transmittance, visual inspection, pH measurement, sucrose concentration, viscosity, and antimicrobial tests were evaluated. The applied method is a quite easy, simple, environmental friendly and convenient way for extraction and oral syrup preparation of C. myxa fruits.

Graphical Abstract

Comparing different extraction methods for oral syrup formulation of major bioactive compounds from Cordia Myxa fruit


Main Subjects

[1] S.K. Wong, Y.Y. Lim, N.R. Abdullah, F.J. Nordin, Pharmacognosy Res., 2011, 3, 100-106.

[2] V.Y. Waisundara, Traditional Herbal Remedies of Sri Lanka: CRC Press, 2019.

[3] K. Kokila, S.D. Priyadharshini, V. Sujatha, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci., 2013, 5, 70-73.

[4] M. Alasvand, V. Assadollahi, R. Ambra, E. Hedayati, W. Kooti, I. Peluso, Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2019, 2019, 9475908.

[5] J.D. Phillipson, Phytochemistry, 2001, 56, 237-243.

[6] I. Muhallilin, S.I. Aisyah, D. Sukma, Biodiversitas., 2019, 20, 862-866.

[7] N. Azwanida, Med Aromat Plants., 2015, 4, 2167-0412.1000196.

[8] S.F. Sulaiman, A.A.B. Sajak, K.L. Ooi, E.M. Seow, J Food Compost Anal., 2011, 24, 506-515.

[9] Z. Inas, A. Hala, H.H. Gehan, Life Sci J., 2011, 8, 433-445.

[10] M. Ranjbar, H.N. Varzi, A. Sabbagh, A. Bolooki, A. Sazmand, Pak J Biol Sci., 2013, 16, 2066-2069.

[11] F.L. Lopez, T.B. Ernest, C. Tuleu, M.O. Gul, Expert Opin Drug Delivery., 2015, 12, 1727-1740.

[12] S.S. Handa, S.P.S. Khanuja, G. Longo, D.D. Rakesh, Organization UNID. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants: Earth, Environmental and Marine Sciences and Technologies, 2008, 260.

[13] S.F. Zohra, B. Meriem, S. Samira, M.A. J. Muneer, Nat Prod Plant Resour., 2012, 2, 512-516.

[14] V. Arya, N. Thakur, C. Kashyap, J Pharmacogn Phytochem., 2012, 1, 1-5.

[15] T. Geetha, N. Geetha, Int J PharmTech Res., 2014, 6, 521-529.

[16] R. Uc, V.M.G. Nair, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci., 2013, 5, 629-34.

[17] V.L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, R.M. Lamuela-Raventós, Methods Enzymol., 1999, 299, 152-178.

[18] R. Kujur, V. Singh, M. Ram, H.N. Yadava, K. Singh, S. Kumari, B. Roy, Pharmacognosy Res., 2010, 2, 258-263.

[19] K. Mukunthan, S. Balaji, Int J Green Nanotechnol., 2012, 4, 71-79.

[20] S. Sadasivam, Biochemical methods: New age international, 1996, 256.

[21] G. Büchi, N. Yang, J Am Chem Soc., 1957, 79, 2318-2323.

[22] E. Iqbal, K.A. Salim, L.B. Lim, J King Saud Univ, Sci., 2015, 27, 224-232.

[23] M. Ranjbar, H.N. Varzi, A. Sabbagh, A. Bolooki, A. Sazmand, Pak J Biol Sci., 2013, 16, 2066-2069.

[24] A.A. Hemmati, H. Kalantari, A. Jalali, S. Rezai, H. Haghighi Zadeh, Exp Toxicol Pathol., 2012, 64, 181-186.

[25] K. Thirupathi, S.S. Kumar, P. Goverdhan, B. Ravikumar, D. Krishna, G.K. Mohan, Niger J Nat Prod Med., 2007, 11, 37-40.

[26] S. Palle, A. Kanakalatha, C.N. Kavitha, J Diet Suppl., 2018, 15, 373-385.

[27] F.M. Al-Awadi, T. Srikumar, J. Anim, I. Khan, Nutrition, 2001, 17, 391-396.

[28] J. Saki, S. Khademvatan, N. Pazyar, A. Eskandari, A. Tamoradi, P. Nazari, Jundishapur J Microbiol., 2015, 8, e59827.

[29] B.K. Tiwari, N.P. Brunton, C. Brennan, Handbook of plant food phytochemicals: sources, stability and extraction: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

[30] A. Malik, A.R. Ahmad, Int J PharmTech Res., 2015, 7, 243-246.