Nowadays, environmental protection has become a global issue due to the sharp increase of waste as a result of the rapid and almost uncontrollable growth in the consumption of synthetic plastics in many sectors of the economy. The issue of the disposal of the products is therefore becoming increasingly important. The creation of biodegradable materials is one of the most acceptable ways to solve the issue, along with the development and research of new biodegradable polymer materials. This study approached the physicochemical properties and the decomposition time of biodegradable polymer compositions obtained by the impact of the ultrasonic treatment on their melts under the laboratory and experimental industrial conditions. The results indicated that The ultrasonic treatment of polymer composite materials (PCMs), based on starch and polyethylene, could lead to the increase in their physicomechanical properties by 1.5-2 times, compared with the control samples, which is associated with the uniform distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix.