Web of Science (Emerging Sources Citation Index), Scopus, ISC

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Applying nano-scaffolds for pulp regeneration is another use of nanotechnology in endodontics that creates impressive development in reconstruction of pulp structure. This study aimed to review the application of polymeric NPs in different stages of the conventional endodontic process and regenerative endodontic therapy. Accordingly, the studies over last ten years were searched by an electronic and manual search via PubMed and Google Scholar search motors. The search was conducted by using these keyword: "polymers","nanoparticles","endodontics", “polymeric nanoparticles”,“root canal disinfection”, and “regeneration”. The results showed that different polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have different advantages and disadvantages but the point is the superiority of nanomaterials in comparison with conventional ones. Using polymeric NPs is a new concept in endodontics' procedures, which could take part as a promising method rather than conventional root canal therapy. Therefore, the future perspective of endodontic seems very promising by using these novel nanomaterials.

Graphical Abstract

Polymeric nano-biomaterials in regenerative endodontics


Main Subjects

[1] Z. Huang, H. Chen, Z.-K. Chen, M.C. Roco, Journal of nanoparticle Research, 2004, 6, 325-354.
[2] R.P. Feynman, Engineering and science, 1959, 23, 22-36.
[3]  N. Taniguchi, Proceeding of the ICPE, 1974, 5, 18-23.
[4] W. Ahmed, A. Elhissi, K. Subramani. Introduction to Nanotechnology. Elsevie; 2012, 3-16.
[5] E.G.ô. Mota, H. Oshima, L.H. Burnett Jr, L. Pires, R.r.S.e. Rosa, Stomatologija, 2006, 8, 67-69.
[6] C. Turssi, J. Ferracane, K. Vogel, Biomaterials, 2005, 26, 4932-4937.
[7]  R.W. Arcı́s, A. López-Macipe, M. Toledano, E. Osorio, Dental Materials, 2002, 18, 49-57.
[8] S.S. Ray, M. Okamoto, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 2003, 24, 815-840.
[9] A. Mohanty, L. Drzal, M. Misra, Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering, 2003, 88, 60-61.
[10] M. Khoroushi, A.A. Khademi, M.E. Dastgurdi, M. Abdolrahimi. Nanobiomaterials in endodontics.  Nanobiomaterials in Dentistry: Elsevier, 2016, 11, 389-424.
[11]  S.M. Chogle, B.M. Kinaia, H.E. Goodis. Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry; Elsevier: New York, 2013; 431-449.
[12]  G. Plotino, T. Cortese, N.M. Grande, D.P. Leonardi, G. Di Giorgio, L. Testarelli, G. Gambarini, Brazilian Dental Journal, 2016, 27, 3-8.
[13]  A. Kishen, A. Shrestha. Nanotechnology in Endodontics; Springer: Switzerland, 2015, 97-119.
[14] A. del Carpio-Perochena, C.M. Bramante, M.A.H. Duarte, M.R. de Moura, F.A. Aouada, A. Kishen, Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics, 2015, 40, 195-201.
[15]  A. del Carpio-Perochena, A. Kishen, R. Felitti, A.Y. Bhagirath, M.R. Medapati, C. Lai, R.S. Cunha, Journal of Endodontics, 2017, 43, 1332-1336.
[16]  M.I. Elshinawy, L.A. Al-Madboly, W.M. Ghoneim, N.M. El-Deeb, Frontiers in microbiology, 2018, 9, 1371.
[17]  A. Shrestha, M.R. Hamblin, A. Kishen, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 2014, 10, 491-501.
[18]  A. Shrestha, A. Kishen, Journal of Endodontics, 2014, 40, 566-570.
[19]  T.C. Pagonis, J. Chen, C.R. Fontana, H. Devalapally, K. Ruggiero, X. Song, et al., Journal of endodontics, 2010, 36, 322-328.
[20]  A. Kishen, M. Upadya, G.P. Tegos, M.R. Hamblin, Photochemistry and photobiology, 2010, 86, 1343-1349.
[21]  H. Makkar, G. Patri, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 2017, 11, ZC05.
[22]  M.G. Arafa, H.A. Mousa, N.N. Afifi, Drug Delivery, 2020, 27, 26-39.
[23]  R. Haseeb, M. Lau, M. Sheah, F. Montagner, G. Quiram, K. Palmer, et al., Materials, 2016, 9, 452.
[24]  D. Pankajakshan, M.T. Albuquerque, J.D. Evans, M.M. Kamocka, R.L. Gregory, M.C. Bottino, Journal of endodontics, 2016, 42, 1490-1495.
[25] M.T. Albuquerque, J. Nagata, M.C. Bottino, Journal of endodontics, 2017, 43, S51-S56.
[26]  G. Quiram, F. Montagner, K.L. Palmer, M.C. Stefan, K.E. Washington, D.C. Rodrigues, Journal of functional biomaterials, 2018, 9, 29.
[27] M. Samiei, S. Davaran, F. Valipour, A. Davari, T. Ghiasian, F. Lotfipour, Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci, 2014, 3, 2316-2332.
[28] E. Abdel Hafez, A.H. Soliman, Egyptian Dental Journal, 2019, 65, 831-836.
[29] M. Torabinejad, G. Holland. Principles and Practice of endodontics; Saunders Company: London, 2015, 14-19.
[30]  K.M. Hargreaves, Cohen's Pathways of the Pulp; Elseviour: Newyork, 2016, 928.
[31] J.P. Loyola-Rodríguez, F. Torres-Méndez, L.F. Espinosa-Cristobal, J.O. García-Cortes, A. Loyola-Leyva, F.J. González, U. Soto-Barreras, R. Nieto-Aguilar, G. Contreras-Palma, Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials, 2019, 17, 1-13.
[32] L. DaSilva, Y. Finer, S. Friedman, B. Basrani, A. Kishen, Journal of endodontics, 2013, 39, 249-253.
[33] I.A.A. Raheem, A.A. Razek, A.A. Elgendy, N.M. Saleh, M.I. Shaaban, F.K. Abd El-Hady, International journal of nanomedicine, 2019, 14, 8379-8398.
[34] D.-K. Lee, S.V. Kim, A.N. Limansubroto, A. Yen, A. Soundia, C.-Y. Wang, W. Shi, C. Hong, ACS nano, 2015, 9, 11490-11501.
[35] N. Beyth, D.K. Shvero, N. Zaltsman, Y. Houri-Haddad, I. Abramovitz, M.P. Davidi,E. Weiss, N. Beyth ,  PloS one, 2013, 8, e78586.
[36] D. Kesler Shvero, I. Abramovitz, N. Zaltsman, M. Perez Davidi, E. Weiss, N. Beyth, International Endodontic Journal, 2013, 46, 747-754.
[37] Z. Chen, W. Wei, Z. Feng, X. Liu, X. Chen, W. Huang, Shanghai kou Qiang yi xue= Shanghai Journal of Stomatology, 2007, 16, 530-533.
[38] U. Gbureck, O. Knappe, N. Hofmann, J.E. Barralet, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials: An Official Journal of The Society for Biomaterials, The Japanese Society for Biomaterials, and The Australian Society for Biomaterials and the Korean Society for Biomaterials, 2007, 83, 132-137.
[39] B.H. Baras, S. Wang, M.A.S. Melo, F. Tay, A.F. Fouad, D.D. Arola, H.H. Xu, Journal of dentistry, 2019, 83, 67-76.
[40] B.H. Baras, J. Sun, M.A.S. Melo, F.R. Tay, T.W. Oates, K. Zhang, et al., Dental Materials, 2019, 35, 1479-1489.
[41]  H. Yavari, N. Ghasemi, B. Divband, Y. Rezaei, G. Jabbari, S. Payahoo, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 2017, 9, e1109.
[42]  A. Al-Haddad, Z.A. Che Ab Aziz, International Journal of Biomaterials, 2016, 2016, 9753210.
[43]  S. Chogle, C. Duhaime, A. Mickel, S. Shaikh, R. Reese, J. Bogle, S. Qutubuddin,International endodontic journal, 2011, 44, 1055-1060.
[44] M. Modareszadeh, S. Chogle, A. Mickel, G. Jin, H. Kowsar, N. Salamat, S. Shaikh
S. Qutbudin, International Endodontic Journal, 2011, 44, 154-161.
[45] H.-P. Lin, H.-P. Tu, Y.-P. Hsieh, B.-S. Lee, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2017, 12, 5473-5485.
[46]  Z. Khurshid, S. Najeeb, M.S. Zafar, F. Sefat. Advanced Dental Biomaterials; Elseviour: Newyork, 2019, 758.
[47]  G. Raddall, I. Mello, B.M. Leung, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2019, 7, 317.
[48]  V. Chrepa, O. Austah, A. Diogenes, Journal of endodontics, 2017, 43, 257-262.
[49]  B. Chang, N. Ahuja, C. Ma, X. Liu, Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 2017, 111, 1-26.
[50]  S. Shrestha, A. Diogenes, A. Kishen, Journal of endodontics, 2014, 40, 1349-1354.
[51] S. Shrestha, A. Diogenes, A. Kishen, Journal of endodontics, 2015, 41, 1253-1258.
[52]  S. Shrestha, C.D. Torneck, A. Kishen, Journal of endodontics, 2016, 42, 717-723.
[53]  C. Bellamy, S. Shrestha, C. Torneck, A. Kishen, Journal of endodontics, 2016, 42, 1385-1392.
[54] A.A. Elgendy, D.M. Fayyad, Tanta Dental Journal, 2017, 14, 198-207.
[55] B. Hashemi-Beni, M. Khoroushi, M.R. Foroughi, S. Karbasi, A.A. Khademi, Dental research journal, 2018, 15, 136-145.
[56]  F.C. Li, A. Kishen, International Endodontic Journal, 2018, 51, 1171-1180.
[57]  X. Liu, P.X. Ma, Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 4094-4103.
[58]  T. Qu, X. Liu, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2013, 1, 4764-4772.
[59]  G.-H. Kim, Y.-D. Park, S.-Y. Lee, A. El-Fiqi, J.-J. Kim, E.-J. Lee, H.W. Kim, E.C. Kim, Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 2015, 29, 854-866.
[60] L. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Joubert, G. Bruder, Y. Liu, C.-C. Chang, G. Walker, M. Rafailovich, Polymers, 2016, 8, 193.
[61] J. Wang, X. Liu, X. Jin, H. Ma, J. Hu, L. Ni, P. Ma, Acta Biomaterialia, 2010, 6, 3856-3863.
[62]  W. Wang, M. Dang, Z. Zhang, J. Hu, T.W. Eyster, L. Ni, P. Ma, Acta biomaterialia, 2016, 36, 63-72.
[63]  X. Li, C. Ma, X. Xie, H. Sun, X. Liu, Acta biomaterialia, 2016, 35, 57-67.
[64]  R. Kuang, Z. Zhang, X. Jin, J. Hu, M.J. Gupte, L. Ni, P. Ma, Advanced healthcare materials, 2015, 4, 1993-2000.
[65] R. Kuang, Z. Zhang, X. Jin, J. Hu, S. Shi, L. Ni, P. Ma, Acta biomaterialia, 2016, 33, 225-234.
[66] M.C. Bottino, G.H. Yassen, J.A. Platt, N. Labban, L.J. Windsor, K.J. Spolnik, A.H.A. Bressiani, Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative medicine, 2015, 9, E116-E123.
[67] K. Kamocki, J. Nör, M. Bottino, International Endodontic Journal, 2015, 48, 1147-1156.
[68] J. Palasuk, K. Kamocki, L. Hippenmeyer, J.A. Platt, K.J. Spolnik, R.L. Gregory, et al., Journal of Endodontics, 2014, 40, 1879-1884.
[69] K. Kamocki, J.E. Nör, M.C. Bottino, Archives of oral biology, 2015, 60, 1131-1137.
[70]  V. Shiehzadeh, F. Aghmasheh, F. Shiehzadeh, M. Joulae, E. Kosarieh, F. Shiehzadeh, Indian Journal of Dental Research, 2014, 25, 248-253.