Web of Science (Emerging Sources Citation Index), ISC

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 College of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan

3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan



The current trend of using natural products from the plants, either as pure constituents or as standardized extracts, provides numerous opportunities for novel drugs, precisely the wild edible plants.  Ziziphus spina Christi plant is considered as one of the most important therapeutic and nutritional wild edible plants because of containing bioactive compounds.  Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the petroleum ether Ziziphus spina Christi seed oil via using two analytical methods: GC-MS, and FTIR spectrometer. The seed oil was extracted by using Soxhlet apparatus. The GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of seventeen fatty acids, eight of them are majors constituents, namely 7-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester [28.11%], Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester [19.63%], Methyl stearate [16.97%], Eicosanoic acid, methyl ester [10.76%], Docosanoic acid, methyl ester [8.60%], cis-11-Eicosenoic acid, methyl ester [4.79%], Tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester [2.62%], and Squalene [2.20%]. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum showed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls and Carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds in the extracts with different peak types and correspondences. The results of GC-MS and FTIR analysis showed the availability of bioactive compounds in the plant extracts, which could be responsible of the source of pharmaceutical value of Ziziphus spina Christi plant.       

Graphical Abstract

Phytochemical screening by using GC-MS and FTIR spectrum analysis of fixed oil from Sudanese Ziziphus spina Christi seeds


Main Subjects

[1] A. Dafni, S. Levy, E. Lev, J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine, 2005, 1, 1-8. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[2] E.M. Abdallah, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2017, 6, 38–44. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[3] J. Asgarpanah, African J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2012, 6, 2332–2339. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[4] B. Adzu, S. Amos, C. Wambebe, K. Gamaniel, Fitoterapia., 2001, 72, 344–350. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[5] B. Adzu, S. Amos, M.B. Amizan, K. Gamaniel, Acta Trop., 2003, 87, 245–250. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6] S. Soliman, A.M. Hamoda, A.N.A. El-Shorbagi, A.A. El-Keblawy, J. Ethnopharmacol., 2019, 231, 403-408. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[7] L. Baghazadeh-Daryaii, G.R. Sharifi-Sirchi, D. Samsampoor, J. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants., 2017, 7, 99–107. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[8] E.N. Ads, S. Rajendrasozhan, S.I. Hassan, S.M.S. Sharawy, J.R. Humaidi, Biomedical Research: An International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2018, 29, 1645–1652. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]    
[9] A.M. Basuny, S.M. Arafat, H.A. Farag, Banat. J. Biotech., 4, 2013, 16–28. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]    
[10] M. Bahmani, A. Jalilian, I. Salimikia, S. Shahsavari, N. Abbasi, Plant Sci. Today, 2020, 7, 275–280. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[11] N.M. Nazif, Food Chem., 2002, 76, 77–81. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[12] M.A. AL-Marzooq, J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2014, 2, 207-214. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[13] A.S. Saied, J. Gebauer, K. Hammer, A. Buerkert, Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., 2008, 55, 929–937. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[14] M. Visveshwari, B. Subbaiyan, V. Thangapandian, Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res., 2017, 9, 914–920. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[15] J.U.N. Wang, W. Wu, X. Wang, M.I.N. Wang, F. Wu, J. Serbian Chem. Soc., 2015, 80, 9–20. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[16] M.A. Abubaker, G. Huo, J. Shi, A.A.M. Farah, J. Zhang, Chem. Methodol., 2021, 5, 240-249. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher
[17] B.M. Abdullah, M.A.H. Mehdi, A.R. Khan, J.M. Pathan, Int. J. Pharm., 2020, 11,228-231.[crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[18] O. Igwe, Int. Res. J. Pure Appl. Chem., 2014, 4, 456–467. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher
[19] A.Y. Shettima, Y. Karumi, O.A. Sodipo, H. Usman, M.A. Tijjani, J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2013, 3, 146–150. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[20] A.C. Gören, G. Bilsel, M. Altun, F. Satıl, T. Dirmenci, Z. Naturforsch., 2003, 58, 502-504. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[21] M.A. Davoodbasha, B. Edachery, T. Nooruddin, S-Y. Lee, J-W Kim, Microb. Pathog., 2018, 115, 233-238. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[22] M. Deventhiran, W.J. Wyson, M.S. Mohamed, K. Jaikumar,  P. Saravanan, D. Anand, Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res., 9, 2017, 253-257. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[23] M.A. Zayed, M.S.M. Abd El-Kareem, N.H.S. Zaky, J. Pharm. Appl. Chem., 2017, 3, 109–116. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[24] S. Basumatary, D.C. Deka, D.C. Deka, Adv. Appl. Sci. Res., 2017, 3, 311-319. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[25] Q. Lu, T. Liu, N. Wang, Z. Dou, K. Wang, Y. Zuo, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2020, 68, 6502-6510. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[26] A. Elaiyaraja, G. Chandramohan, J. Drug Deliv. Ther., 2018, 8, 365–380. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[27] D. Madhu, Y.C. Sharma, Resour. Technol., 2017, 3, 144–157. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[28]       B. Yue, Y. Wen, W. Chen, Z. Yin, J. Xing, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 687, 2021, 012075. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[29] Z.R. Huang, Y.K. Lin, J.Y. Fang, Molecules, 2009, 14, 540–554. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[30] A.B.D. Nandiyanto, R. Oktiani, R. Ragadhita, Indones. J. Sci. Technol., 2019, 4, 97–118. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[31] P. Rajiv, A. Deepa, P. Vanathi, D. Vidhya, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 9, 315-318. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[32] S. Agatonovic-Kustrin, P. Ristivojevic, V. Gegechkori, T.M. Litvinova, D.W. Morton, Appl. Sci., 2020, 10, 7294. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[33] J. Coates, Encycl. Anal. Chem., 2006, 12, 1–23. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[34] C.E. Enenebeaku, I.C. Ukaga, J.N. Okorocha, B.I. Onyeachu, Int. lett. chem. phys. astron., 2018, 80, 17-29. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[35] R. Vijayalakshmi, R. Ravindhran, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2012, 2, 1367–S1371. [crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]