Document Type : Review Article


1 Rifai General Hospital, Dhi Qar Health Directorate, Iraqi Ministry of Health, Dhi Qar, Iraq

2 College of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq

3 College of Health and Medical Technology, Al-Ayen University, Dhi Qar, Iraq

4 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Thi-Qar, 64001, Iraq

5 Medical Laboratory Technology Dept., College of Health & Medical Technology, Southern Technical University, Basrah, Iraq

6 Al-Zahra’a Medical College, University of Basrah, Basra, Iraq

7 Qalat Sukkar Sector of Primary Health Care, Dhi Qar Health Directorate, Iraqi Ministry of Health, Dhi Qar

8 Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Center, University of Basrah, College of Medicine, Basra, Iraq

9 Shatrah General Hospital, Dhi Qar Health Directorate, Iraqi Ministry of Health, Dhi Qar

10 15th Sha'ban Center, Al-Nasiriyah Sector One, Dhi Qar Health Directorate, Iraqi Ministry of Health, Dhi Qar

11 Department of Forensic Sciences, College of Medical Techniques, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq


Minerals are inorganic substances present in the tissues and fluids of our bodies. They are divided into macro minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl, P, and S) and microminerals (I, Zn, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Mo, F, Cr, and B), which are important for health and should be consumed according to the needs of the organism. Essential minerals have well-characterized physiological functions within the body. The ability of the body to maintain the minerals content within a certain range despite varying intakes, involves the processes of absorption, storage, and excretion. Inappropriate intakes and/or elevated requirements result from a range of conditions, including disease, malabsorption, pregnancy, and excessive losses, lead to deficiency. A severe deficiency of an essential mineral can only be corrected by supplementation. This review provides some detailed information about dietary sources, biological effects, deficiency, and toxicity of minerals and trace elements.

Graphical Abstract

Mineral and trace elements, dietary sources, biological effects, deficiency, and toxicity: a review


Main Subjects

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