Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Health Education & Promotion, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Health Education & Promotion, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran



Tramadol is an opioid analgesic with the potential for addiction to other opioids, and one of the abused drugs in different countries including Iran. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and factors relating to tramadol abuse among higher education students in the city of Damghan in 2016. The present descriptive-analytical study enrolled 730 students from seven higher education centers in Damghan. The samples were selected by simple random sampling, and researcher-made questionnaires were issued to them, and collected immediately after completion. Data extracted were analyzed in STAT-13 using Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square and 2 independent sample T-test at P

Graphical Abstract

Tramadol abuse and its related factors among higher education students in the city of Damghan, Semnan Province, Iran


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