Scopus (CiteScore 2022 =3.0, Q3) , ISC

Document Type : Short Communication


Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia


Malignant lymphoma is categorized into Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma, especially NHL, can manifest outside lymph nodes, particularly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can induce disruptions in both the liver and other organs, with NHL being the most common extrahepatic manifestation. Secondary Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) can develop in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.  A 47-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and weight loss. His laboratory examination revealed anemia, (direct and indirect) hyperbilirubinemia, elevated levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive anti-HCV, and positive HCV RNA. Biopsy results supported a diagnosis of B-cell NHL. In addition, imaging displayed multiple intra-abdominal lymphadenopathies. The patient was diagnosed with colon B-cell NHL primarily based on clinical symptoms and biopsy results. NHL in this patient could be attributed to HCV infection. Furthermore, the AIHA experienced by these patients may result from lymphoproliferative disorders, namely NHL.

Graphical Abstract

Hepatitis C infection and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with colon B-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma: a case report


Main Subjects

[1] R. Singh, S. Shaik, B. Negi, J. Rajguru, P. Patil, A. Parihar, U. Sharma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: A review, J. Fam. Med. and Prim. Care., 2020, 9, 1834. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[2] A. Bowzyk Al‑Naeeb, T. Ajithkumar, S. Behan, D.J. Hodson. Non‑Hodgkin lymphoma. BMJ, 2018, 362, k3204. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[3] M. Pandey, J. Swain, H.M. Iyer, M. Shukla, Primary lymphoma of the colon: Report of two cases and review of literature, World J. Surg. Oncol, 2019, 17. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[4] L. Couronné, E. Bachy, S. Roulland, B. Nadel, F. Davi, M. Armand, D. Canioni, J.M. Michot, C. Visco, L. Arcaini, C. Besson, O. Hermine, From hepatitis C virus infection to B-cell lymphoma. Ann. Oncology., 2018, 29, 100. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[5] K. Hagymási, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine-2020., Structural Chemistry, 2021, 32, 909-913 [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6] L. Xing, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Feng, Y. Qu, N. Duan, Y. Wang, H. Wang, C. Liu, W. Qu, Y. Wu, J. Guan, G. Wang, J. Song, L. Li, X. Wang, R. Fu, Z. Shao, Characteristics of patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia secondary to lymphoproliferative disorder: A single-centre retrospective analysis, Scientific Reports, 2019, 9. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[7] J. Das, S. Ray, S. Sen, M. Chandy, Extranodal involvement in lymphoma-A Pictorial Essay and Retrospective Analysis of 281 PET/CT studies, Asia Oceania J. Nuclear Medicine & Biology, 2014, 2, 42-56. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[8] P. Ghimire, G.Y. Wu, L. Zhu, Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. World J. Gastroenterol., 2011, 17, 697–707. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[9] L.M. Juárez-Salcedo, L. Sokol, J.C. Chavez, S Dalia, Primary gastric lymphoma, epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment. Cancer Control, 2018, 25, 1-12. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[10] M. Jiang, N.N. Bennani, A.L. Feldman, Lymphoma classification update: T-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, and histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms, Expert Rev. Hematol., 2017, 10, 249. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[11] J. Taylor, W. Xiao, O. Abdel-Wahab, Diagnosis and classification of hematologic malignancies on the basis of genetics. Blood, 2017, 130, 410-423. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[12] B. Suresh, V. Asati, K.C. Lakshmaiah, et al. Primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A prospective study from South India. South Asian J. Cancer, 2019, 8, 57-59. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[13] A. Flores-Chávez, J.A. Carrion, X. Forns, M. Ramos-Casals, Extrahepatic manifestations associated with chronic Hepatitis C Virus infection, Rev Esp Sanid Penit, 2017, 19, 87-97. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[14] L. Kuna, J. Jakab, R. Smolic, G.Y. Wu, M. Smolic, HCV Extrahepatic Manifestations. J Clin Transl Hepatol., 2019, 7, 172-182. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[15] B. Songtanin, K. Burden, Outcome, and Comorbidities of Extrahepatic Manifestations in Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Biology, 2023, 12, 23. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[16] S. Tasleem, G.K. Sood, Hepatitis c associated b-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma: Clinical features and the role of antiviral therapy, J. Clin. Transl.Hepatol., 2015, 3, 139. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[17] H. Khaled, F. Abu-Taleb, &, R. Haggag, Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: A minireview. J. Adv. Res., 2017, 8, 131-137. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[18] J.P Oberhag, Arcaini L. Jan, M.L. Hansmann, S. Zeuzem, Hepatitis C-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Epidemiology, molecular signature and clinical management, J. Hepatol, 2013, 59, 169-177. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[19] AW Hauswirth, C Skrabs, Ch Schützinger, A Gaiger, K Lechner, U Jäger. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHA), Evans’ syndromes and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leuk. Lymphoma., 2007, 48, 1139-49. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]