Scopus (CiteScore 2022 =3.0, Q3) , ISC

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, St. Mayjen. Prof. Dr. Moestopo No. 47, Surabaya 60132, East Java, Indonesia



Caries removal and cavity preparation are associated with restorative treatment in carious teeth. Cutting dental hard tissue is challenging to remove the carious tissue and maintain the healthy tissue to support the restoration. In recent decades, the laser has been widely used in dental practices and played a significant role in non-invasive treatment approaches. The laser with the highest efficiency for hard tissue and useful for dental caries is the Er:YAG laser, which is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This literature review aims to list the benefits of employing Er:YAG lasers in dentistry practices for cavity preparation and caries eradication. More healthy tissue can be preserved with more precision, a clean surface, and a smear-layer-free surface thanks to use the Er:YAG laser to remove cavities. Using Er:YAG laser in dental practice can reduce the risk of infection because it provides a surface decontamination effect and generates less aerosol. Patients will also feel more comfortable and painless during the treatment. Dental practitioners and patients have significantly benefited from cavity preparation and using the Er:YAG laser to remove dental cavities.

Graphical Abstract

Caries removal and cavity preparation using Er: Yag laser in dental practice: literature review


Main Subjects

[1] M. Levy, Light, lasers and beam delivery systems, Clin Podiatr Med Surg., 1992, 9, 521.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[2] B.W. Weesner, Lasers: opportunities and obstacles, Compendium., 1995, 16, 72.  [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[3] a) W.G. Middleton, D.A. Tees, M. Ostowski, Comparative gross and histological effects of the ‎CO2 laser, Nd:Yag laser, scalpel, Shaw scalpel and cutting cautery on skin in rats, J Otolarnygol., ‎‎1993, 22, 167. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎ b), A. Belhachem, N. Amara, H. Belmekki, Y. Yahia, Z. Cherifi, A. Amiar, A. Bengueddach, ‎R. Meghabar, H. Toumi, Synthesis, characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of an ‎alginate–zinc oxide nanocomposite, J. Med. Nanomate. Chem., 2023, ‎‎5, 173. ‎‎[Crossref], [Publisher]‎ c) N. Jasem, M.B. Al-Quzweny, A.M. Alsammarraie, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy ‎as an unconventional tool analysis for carbon allotropes. J. Med. Pharm. Chem. Res., 2022, 4, 806-811.‎ ‎[Pdf], [Publisher]‎ d) A. Heidaripour, H. Gholami Qasemi, Innovative preparation of Mica/Fe3O4 ‎superparamagnetic nanocomposite as a contrast agent in MRI and MHT, J. Med. Nanomater. Chem., 2023, 5, 125. ‎‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎ e) A. Kareem, D.K. Mahdi, Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles-doped ‎mesoporous bioactive glass prepared by spray pyrolysis, J. Med. Pharm. Chem. Res., 2022, 4, 330.‎ ‎[Pdf], [Google Scholar] f) M. Manasa, G.S. Devi, Synthesis, structural evaluation of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) ‎nanoparticles and its application as CO2 gas sensor, J. Med. Nanomate. Chem., 2021, 3, 282-294. ‎‎[Crossref], [Pdf], [Publisher]‎ g) R. Lashkarboluki, M.H. Mallah, Process modeling of 18o isotope separation using stochastic ‎exchanges of isotopic components in a packed distillation column, J. Med. Pharm. Chem. Res., 2022, 4, 137-146.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Publisher]‎ h) N. Turkie, S. Hameed, Department of medical laboratory techniques, Al-Dour technical ‎institute, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq, J. Med. Pharm. Chem. Res., 2021, 3, 678-692.‎ ‎[Pdf], [Publisher]
[4] T. Maiman, Stimulated optical radiation in ruby, Nature., 1960, 187, 493.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[5] L. Goldman, J.A. Gray, J. Goldman, B. Goldman, R. Meyer, Effects of laser impacts on teeth. J Am Dent Assoc., 1965, 70, 601.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6] J. Matys, K. Grzech-Leśniak, Dental aerosol as a hazard risk for dental workers, Materials (Basel). 2020, 13, 5109.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[7] D.M. Kaur, D.V. Thakur, D.M. Bhalla, Dental LASER: A Boon in Dentistry & its significance in Covid-19, J Curr Med Res Opin., 2020, 3, 682. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[8] J. Arnabat-Dominguez, A. Vecchio Del, C. Todea, K. Grzech-Leśniak, P. Vescovi, U. Romeo, S. Namour, Laser dentistry in daily practice during the COVID-19 pandemic: Benefits, risks and recommendations for safe treatments, Adv. Clin. Exp. Med., 2021, 30. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[9] K. Kuhn, C.U. Schmid, R.G. Luthardt, H. Rudolph, R. Diebolder, Er: YAG laser-induced damage to a dental composite in simulated clinical scenarios for inadvertent irradiation: an in vitro study, Lasers Med. Sci. 2021, 1. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[10] M. Paryab, S. Sharifi, M.J. Kharazifard, N. Kumarci, Cavity preparation by laser in primary teeth: effect of 2 levels of energy output on the shear bond strength of composite restoration to dentin, J. Lasers Med. Sci., 2019, 10, 235 ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[11] G. Schuster, M. Cohn, G. Agostini-Walesch, A. Carroll, J.C. Mitchell, Patient and clinician experiences when using a CO2 laser for cavity preparations: lessons learned from prospective clinical research, Appl. Sci., 2022, 12, 4800 ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎‎
[12] R. Abdrabuh, O. El Meligy, N. Farsi, A.S. Bakry, O.M. Felemban, Restoration integrity in primary teeth prepared using erbium/yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser: a randomized split-mouth clinical study †, 2023, 10, 1215. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[13] W.A. Fried, K.H. Chan, C.L. Darling, D.A. Curtis, D. Fried, Image-Guided Ablation of Dental Calculus From Root Surfaces Using a DPSS Er:YAG Laser, Lasers Surg. Med., 2020, 52, 247.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[14] R. Abdrabuh, O. El Meligy, N. Farsi, A.S. Bakry, O.M. Felemban, Restoration integrity in primary teeth prepared using erbium/yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser: a randomized split-mouth clinical study, Children, 2023, 10, 1215 ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[15] J. Jew, K.H. Chan, C.L. Darling, D. Fried, Lasers Dent. XXIII, 2017, 10044. [Crossref], [Publisher]‎
[16] E. Veneva, R. Raycheva, A. Belcheva, Medicine (Baltimore), 2018, 97, e13061.‎ [Crossref]
[17] D. Strakas, N. Gutknecht, Erbium lasers in operative dentistry—a literature review, Lasers Dent. Sci., 2018, 2, 125.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[18] K. Grzech-Leśniak., J. Matys, The Effect of Er:YAG Lasers on the Reduction of Aerosol Formation for Dental Workers, Materials., 2021, 14, 2857. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎‎
[19] M. Heyder, B. Sigusch, C. Hoder-Przyrembel, J. Schuetze, S. Kranz, M. Reise, Clinical effects of laser-based cavity preparation on class V resin-composite fillings, PLoS One. 2022, 17, e0270312. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[20] J. Kiryk, J. Matys, K. Grzech-Leśniak, M. Dominiak, M. Małecka, P. Kuropka, R.J. Wiglusz, M. Dobrzyński, SEM Evaluation of Tooth Surface after a Composite Filling Removal Using Er:YAG Laser, Drills with and without Curettes, and Optional EDTA or NaOCl Conditioning, Materials (Basel), 2021, 14, 4469. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎‎
[21] J. Kiryk, J. Matys, A. Nikodem, K. Burzyńska, K. Grzech-Leśniak, M. Dominiak, M. Dobrzyński, The effect of er: Yag laser on a shear bond strength value of orthodontic brackets to enamel—A preliminary study, Materials ‎‎(Basel)., 2021, 14, 2093.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[22] M. Erkmen Almaz, N.B. Ulusoy, A. Akbay Oba, Ü. Erdem, M. Doğan, Thermal, morphological, and spectral changes after Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at low fluences on primary teeth for caries prevention, Microsc. Res. Tech., 2021, 84, 150.‎ ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[23] F. Shirani, R. Birang, E. Ahmadpour, Z. Heidari, R. O. Memar, Z. Zarei, R. Fekrazad, Evaluation of Microleakage in Resin Composites Bonded to an Er:YAG Laser and Bur-Prepared Root and Coronal Dentin Using Different Bonding Agents, J. Lasers Med. Sci., 2021, ‎‎12, e74. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎‎
[24] P. Nahas, S. Houeis, R. Chamboredon, D. Heysselaer, T. Zeinoun, S. Nammour, Assessment of the Periodontal Cementum Ablation Depth during Root Planing by an Er:YAG Laser at Different Energy Densities: An Ex Vivo Study, Dent. J., 2023, 11, 116. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[25] S.K. Vaddamanu, R. Vyas, K. Kavita, R. Sushma, A. S. Aboobacker, A. Dixit, A. Kumar, In vitro Evaluation of Laser vs. Handpiece for Tooth Preparation, J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2022, 14, S526. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎‎
[26] Z. Xiong, S. Tu, L. Jiang, T. Cheng, H. Jiang, Effect of nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse Er,Cr:YSGG laser ablation on dentin shear bond strength of universal adhesives, Lasers Med. Sci., 2022, 37, 3285. ‎[Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
[27] S. Kirubanandan, P.K. Sehgal, Regeneration of soft tissue using porous bovine collagen scaffold, J. Optoelectron. Biomed. Mate., 2010, 2. ‎[ [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎