Scopus (CiteScore 2022 =3.0, Q3) , ISC

Document Type : Original Research Article


Child Health Department of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Surabaya, Indonesia



Pneumonia is a significant contributor to global child mortality, accounting for approximately 15% of total deaths in children under five. Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a potential factor in respiratory tract infections. This study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D3 on calcidiol, IL-10, and pneumonia severity in children, offering valuable insights into the relationship between vitamin D3 supplementation, IL-10 levels, and pneumonia severity. Conducted on children aged 1 month to 5 years diagnosed with pneumonia, the research employed a rigorous experimental design, including double-blind procedures, a control group, pretest-posttest measurements, and appropriate controls. Data collection took place from March to June 2022. Participants received standard therapy and a single oral dose of 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Calcidiol and IL-10 levels were assessed, with serum levels examined after 8 days. Statistical analyses using Mann-Whitney U test and paired t-test in SPSS version 25 were conducted. The study comprised 46 participants (30 males, 16 females) with an average age of 24 months in the control group. Post-supplementation, calcidiol levels were 53.08 ± 64.5 ng/mL (p = 0.04), while IL-10 levels were 130.39 pg/ml (p=0.27). A significant difference in pneumonia severity was noted post-supplementation compared to the pre-supplementation period (p<0.001). Thus, vitamin D3 supplementation influenced pneumonia severity, but did not significantly impact IL-10 level changes. This study sheds light on potential avenues for improving pneumonia outcomes in children through targeted vitamin D supplementation.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on Il-10 level and severity of pneumonia in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial


Main Subjects

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