Scopus (CiteScore 2022 =3.0, Q3) , ISC

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

2 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Malang, Malang, East Java, Indonesia



Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that often affects children. This condition is caused by a failure in peripheral tolerogenic mechanisms. The role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β) in this mechanism is still controversial. This study evaluated the association between serum TGF-β levels and T1DM in children. This study may serve as a foundation for exploring the potential benefits of TGF-β knowledge, such as the discovery of novel therapeutics or the prevention of complications associated with T1DM. A case-control study was conducted with 26 children with T1DM and 26 without T1DM (as control) at the General and Endocrinology Pediatric outpatient clinic and pediatric ward of Dr Soetomo Surabaya Hospital from October 2020 to March 2021. Differences in serum TGF-β levels were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test.  The mean age of onset was 7.23±4.11 years, and the time duration of diagnosis was 6.35±3.45 years. TGF-β was lower in T1DM than in the control group (1.36, 95% CI 0.44–3.42 ng/mL vs. 3.54, 95% CI 2.01–4.00 ng/mL; p<0.001). The serum TGF-β levels were not significantly associated with the duration of T1DM and c-peptide (p=0.481; p=0.235). Children with T1DM may have lowered immunity due to decreased TGF-β.

Graphical Abstract

Decreased serum transforming growth factor-beta levels in Indonesian children with type 1 diabetes


Main Subjects

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