Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Chemistry, University of Zanjan, P.O. BOX 45195-313, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Zanjan, P.O. BOX 45195-313, Zanjan, Iran; Research Institute of Modern Biological Techniques (RIMBT), P.O. BOX 45195-313, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran



The arrival of new types of viral diseases, namely coronavirus family, have posed a serious threat for global health. A new kind of coronavirus (CoV) named intense respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) firstly diagnosed in Huanan Seafood Wholesale, Wuhan City, China. The COVID-19 origination is likely to be from an animal host like bat and followed by person-person transmission unless the other routes possibility should be taken into account. The COVID-19 has been spread so fast all over the world, with more than 1,569,504 infected cases and 95,269 mortality as of April, 11th 2020, regardless of potent control and quarantine policy in more countries. Moreover, the SARS-CoV2 known as a novel coronavirus as it’s initial genomic was less likely to be matched with the former CoV types. The human-human transmission range reported to be 2-14 days and its spread expansions would be comforted by surfaces, infected hands and droplets. This review focused on the persistency of different coronaviruses, like avain H7H9, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebola virus and COVID-19, on varied surfaces as well as considering of COVID-19 features such as transmission, preventable policies, symptoms and suggested treatment ways to combat COVID-19.

Graphical Abstract

A Review on coronavirus family persistency and considerations of novel type, covid-19 features


Main Subjects

[1] C. Wang, P.W. Horby, F.G. Hayden, G.F. Gao, Lancet, 2020, 395, 470-473.
[2] N. Zhu, D. Zhang, W. Wang, X. Li, B. Yang, J. Song, X. Zhao, B. Huang, W. Shi,R. Lu, New Engl. J. Med., 2020, 382, 727-733.
[3] K. Dhama, K. Sharun, R. Tiwari, S. Sircar, S. Bhat, Y.S. Malik, K.P. Singh, W. Chaicumpa, D.K. Bonilla-Aldana, A.J. Rodriguez-Morales, Preprints, 2020, 2020030001, 1-75.
[4] E. de Wit, N. van Doremalen, D. Falzarano,V.J. Munster, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2016, 14, 523.
[5] J.F.-W. Chan, S. Yuan, K.-H. Kok, K.K.-W. To, H. Chu, J. Yang, F. Xing, J. Liu, C.C.-Y. Yip, R.W.-S. Poon, Lancet, 2020, 395, 514-523.
[6] J. Otter, C. Donskey, S. Yezli, S. Douthwaite, S. Goldenberg, D. Weber, J. Hosp. Infect., 2016, 92, 235-250.
[7] S.F. Dowell, J.M. Simmerman, D.D. Erdman, J.-S.J. Wu, A. Chaovavanich, M. Javadi, J.-Y. Yang, L.J. Anderson, S. Tong, M.S. Ho, Clin. Infect. Dis., 2004, 39, 652-657.
[8] C. Geller, M. Varbanov, R.E. Duval, Viruses, 2012, 4, 3044-3068.
[9] G. Kampf, Antiseptic stewardship, Springer, 2018.
[10] G. Kampf, D. Todt, S. Pfaender, E. Steinmann,  J. Hosp. Infect., 2020, 104, 246-251.
[11] M. Ijaz, A. Brunner, S. Sattar, R.C. Nair, C. Johnson-Lussenburg, J. Gen. Virol., 1985, 66, 2743-2748.
[12] N. van Doremalen, T. Bushmaker, D.H. Morris, M.G. Holbrook, A. Gamble, B.N. Williamson, A. Tamin, J.L. Harcourt, N.J. Thornburg, S.I. Gerber, New Engl. J. Med., 2020, 382, 1564-1567.
[13] L.M. Casanova, S. Jeon, W.A. Rutala, D.J. Weber, M.D. Sobsey, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 2712-2717.
[14] N. Van Doremalen, T. Bushmaker,V. Munster, Euro Surveill., 2013, 18, 20590.
[15] S.L. Warnes, Z.R. Little, C.W. Keevil, MBio, 2015, 6, e01697-01615.
[16] S. Duan, X. Zhao, R. Wen, J.-j. Huang, G. Pi, S. Zhang, J. Han, S. Bi, L. Ruan,X.-p. Dong, Biomed. Environ. Sci., 2003, 16, 246.
[17] M.Y. Lai, P.K. Cheng,W.W. Lim, Clin. Infect. Dis., 2005, 41, e67-e71.
[18] N.J. Emery, A.M. Seed, A.M.P. von Bayern, N.S. Clayton, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 2007, 362, 489-505.
[19] J. Sizun, M. Yu, P. Talbot, J. Hosp. Infect., 2000, 46, 55-60.
[20] H. Rabenau, J. Cinatl, B. Morgenstern, G. Bauer, W. Preiser, H. Doerr, Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2005, 194, 1-6.
[21] M. SAKNIMIT, I. INATSUKI, Y. SUGIYAMA,K.-i. YAGAMI, Exp. Anim., 1988, 37, 341-345.
[22] A. Siddharta, S. Pfaender, N.J. Vielle, R. Dijkman, M. Friesland, B. Becker, J. Yang, M. Engelmann, D. Todt, M.P. Windisch, J. Infect. Dis., 2017, 215, 902-906.
[23] C. Dellanno, Q. Vega, D. Boesenberg, Am. J. Infect. Control, 2009, 37, 649-652.
[24] H. Rabenau, G. Kampf, J. Cinatl,H. Doerr, J. Hosp. Infect., 2005, 61, 107-111.
[25] A. Pratelli, Zoonoses and Public Health, 2007, 54, 383-386.
[26] A. Wood, D. Payne, J. Hosp. Infect., 1998, 38, 283-295.
[27] A. Pratelli, The Veterinary Journal, 2008, 177, 71-79.
[28] N. Omidbakhsh, S.A. Sattar, Am. J. Infect. Control, 2006, 34, 251-257.
[29] M. Eggers, T. Koburger-Janssen, M. Eickmann,J. Zorn, Infect. Dis. Ther., 2018, 7, 249-259.
[30] H. Kariwa, N. Fujii,I. Takashima, Dermatology, 2006, 212, 119-123.
[31] M. Eggers, M. Eickmann, J. Zorn, Infect. Dis. Ther., 2015, 4, 491-501.
[32] S. Sattar, V. Springthorpe, Y. Karim, P. Loro, Epidemiol. Infect., 1989, 102, 493-505.
[33] S.M. Goyal, Y. Chander, S. Yezli, J. Otter, J. Hosp. Infect., 2014, 86, 255-259.
[34] R.L. Hulkower, L.M. Casanova, W.A. Rutala, D.J. Weber, M.D. Sobsey, Am. J. Infect. Control, 2011, 39, 401-407.
[35] M. Bassetti, A. Vena, D.R. Giacobbe, Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2020, 50, e13209.
[36] W. Ji, W. Wang, X. Zhao, J. Zai, X. Li, J. Med. Virol., 2020, 92, 433-440.
[37] R. Lu, X. Zhao, J. Li, P. Niu, B. Yang, H. Wu, W. Wang, H. Song, B. Huang, N. Zhu, Lancet, 2020, 395, 565-574.
[38] Y. Wan, J. Shang, R. Graham, R.S. Baric, F. Li, J. Virol., 2020, 94.
[39] W.G. Carlos, C.S. Dela Cruz, B. Cao, S. Pasnick, S. Jamil, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2020, 201, P7-P8.
[40] P. Wu, X. Hao, E.H. Lau, J.Y. Wong, K.S. Leung, J.T. Wu, B.J. Cowling, G.M. Leung, Euro Surveill., 2020, 25.
[41] D.A. Schwartz, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 2020, doi: 10.5858/arpa.2020-0901-SA
[42] Q. Lu, Y. Shi, J. Med. Virol., 2020, 92, 564– 567.
[43] D.R. Murdoch, N.P. French, N.Z. Med. J., 2020, 133, 12-15.
[44] J.A. Jaimes, J.K. Millet, A.E. Stout, N.M. André, G.R. Whittaker, Viruses, 2020, 12, 83.
[45] V. Monteil, H. Kwon, P. Prado, A. Hagelkrüys, R.A. Wimmer, M. Stahl, A. Leopoldi, E. Garreta, C.H. del Pozo,F. Prosper, Cell, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004
[46] Y. Bai, L. Yao, T. Wei, F. Tian, D.-Y. Jin, L. Chen,M. Wang, Jama, 2020, 323, 1406-1407.
[47] C. Sohrabi, Z. Alsafi, N. O’Neill, M. Khan, A. Kerwan, A. Al-Jabir, C. Iosifidis, R. Agha, Int. J. Surg., 2020, 76, 71-76.
[48] R. Thompson, Lancet Infect. Dis., 2020, 20, 280.
[49] W. Wang, J. Tang, F. Wei, J. Med. Virol., 2020, 92, 441-447.
[50] L.-L. Ren, Y.-M. Wang, Z.-Q. Wu, Z.-C. Xiang, L. Guo, T. Xu, Y.-Z. Jiang, Y. Xiong, Y.-J. Li,H. Li, Chin. Med. J., 2020, doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000722
[51] C. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Li, L. Ren, J. Zhao, Y. Hu, L. Zhang, G. Fan, J. Xu, X. Gu, Lancet, 2020, 395, 497-506.
[52] N. Chen, M. Zhou, X. Dong, J. Qu, F. Gong, Y. Han, Y. Qiu, J. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Wei, J.a. Xia, T. Yu, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Lancet, 2020, 395, 507-513.
[53] H.A. Rothan, S.N. Byrareddy, J. Autoimmun., 2020, 109, 102433.
[54] L.T. Phan, T.V. Nguyen, Q.C. Luong, T.V. Nguyen, H.T. Nguyen, H.Q. Le, T.T. Nguyen, T.M. Cao,Q.D. Pham, New Engl. J. Med., 2020, 382, 872-874.
[55] A. Assiri, J.A. Al-Tawfiq, A.A. Al-Rabeeah, F.A. Al-Rabiah, S. Al-Hajjar, A. Al-Barrak, H. Flemban, W.N. Al-Nassir, H.H. Balkhy, R.F. Al-Hakeem, Lancet Infect. Dis., 2013, 13, 752-761.
[56] N. Lee, D. Hui, A. Wu, P. Chan, P. Cameron, G.M. Joynt, A. Ahuja, M.Y. Yung, C. Leung, K. To, New Engl. J. Med., 2003, 348, 1986-1994.
[57] F. Jiang, L. Deng, L. Zhang, Y. Cai, C.W. Cheung, Z. Xia, J. Gen. Intern. Med., 2020, DOI: 10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w.
[58] B. Amber Ather, B. Nikita, J. Endod., 2020, 46, 584-595.
[59] D.S.C. HUI, P.C. WONG,C. Wang, Respirology, 2003, 8, S20-S24.
[60] W.H. Organization, Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (‎‎‎ nCoV)‎‎‎ infection is suspected: interim guidance, 25 January 2020, World Health Organization, 2020.
[61] F. Song, N. Shi, F. Shan, Z. Zhang, J. Shen, H. Lu, Y. Ling, Y. Jiang, Y. Shi, Radiology, 2020, 295, 200274.
[62] V.M. Corman, O. Landt, M. Kaiser, R. Molenkamp, A. Meijer, D.K. Chu, T. Bleicker, S. Brünink, J. Schneider, M.L. Schmidt, Euro Surveill., 2020, 25.
[63] H. Li, C. Lan, H. Weng, S. Chen, Q. Lin,J. Huang, Chin. J. Tuberc. Respir. Dis., 2017, 40, 850-854.
[64] W.H. Organization, Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus ( 2019-nCoV) infection is suspected: interim guidance, 28 January 2020, World Health Organization, 2020.
[65] H. Røsjø, M. Varpula, T.-A. Hagve, S. Karlsson, E. Ruokonen, V. Pettilä, T. Omland, F.S. Group, Intensive Care Med., 2011, 37, 77-85.
[66] W.H. Organization, Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common childhood illnesses, World Health Organization, 2013.
[67] W.H. Organization, WHO Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza, Geneva, 2014.
[68] M.J. Schultz, M.W. Dunser, A.M. Dondorp, N.K. Adhikari, S. Iyer, A. Kwizera, Y. Lubell, A. Papali, L. Pisani, B.D. Riviello, Intensive Care Med., 2017, 43, 612-624.
[69] A. Rhodes, L.E. Evans, W. Alhazzani, M.M. Levy, M. Antonelli, R. Ferrer, A. Kumar, J.E. Sevransky, C.L. Sprung, M.E. Nunnally, Intensive Care Med., 2017, 43, 304-377.
[70] C. Chu, V. Cheng, I. Hung, M. Wong, K. Chan, K. Chan, R. Kao, L. Poon, C. Wong,Y. Guan, Thorax, 2004, 59, 252-256.
[71] L. Kui, Y.-Y. Fang, Y. Deng, W. Liu, M.-F. Wang, J.-P. Ma, W. Xiao, Y.-N. Wang, M.-H. Zhong, C.-H. Li, Chin. Med. J., 2020, doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744
[72] Q. Cai, M. Yang, D. Liu, J. Chen, D. Shu, J. Xia, X. Liao, Y. Gu, Q. Cai,Y. Yang, Engineering, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.03.007
[73] C. Chen, J. Huang, Z. Cheng, J. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Chen, M. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, medRxiv, 2020, doi: 10.1101/2020.03.17.20037432
[74] M. Wang, R. Cao, L. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Liu, M. Xu, Z. Shi, Z. Hu, W. Zhong, G. Xiao, Cell Res., 2020, 30, 269-271.